J Nutr Biochem, 2023, Apr;114:109270. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2023.109270.

Short-term flaxseed oil, rich in omega 3, protects mice against metabolic damage caused by high-fat diet, but not inflammation

Nakandakari SCBR Gaspar RC Kuga GK et al

It is known that long-term high-fat diet (HF) feeding drastically affects the adipose tissue, contributing to metabolic disorders. Recently, short-term HF consumption was shown to affect different neuronal signaling pathways. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the inflammatory effects of a short-term HF and whether a diet containing omega-3 fatty acid fats from flaxseed oil (FS) has protective effects. Mice were divided into three groups for 3 d, according to their diets: Control group (CT), HF, or FS for 3 d. Lipid profiles were assessed through mass spectrometry and inflammatory markers by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. After short-term HF, mice increased food intake, body weight, adiposity, and fasting glucose. Increased mRNA content of Ccl2 and Tnf was demonstrated in the HF compared to CT in mesenteric adipose tissue. In the liver, TNFα protein was higher in the HF group than in CT, followed by a decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids tissue incorporation in HF. On the other hand, the consumption of FS reduced food intake and fasting glucose, as well as increased omega-3 fatty acid incorporation in MAT and the liver. However, short-term FS was insufficient to control the early inflammation triggered by HF in MAT and the liver. These data demonstrated that a 3-d HF diet is enough to damage glucose homeostasis and trigger inflammation. In contrast, short-term FS protects against increased food intake and fasting glucose but not inflammation in mice.


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