Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2023, doi: 10.1080/10408398.2023.2251583

Dietary intake, biomarkers and supplementation of fatty acids and risk of coronary events: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies

Jayedi A Soltani S Emadi A et al

We aimed to review the association of dietary fats and risk of coronary events in adults. We searched PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, Scopus, and Web of Sciences to April 2022 for prospective cohorts and randomized trials investigating the association of dietary intake and biomarkers of fats and fatty acid interventions and the risk of coronary events. We performed random-effects meta-analyses to estimate relative risk (RR) for the top versus bottom tertiles of exposures. One-hundered sixty-five prospective cohorts and randomized trials were included. Dietary intake and biomarkers of total fat and saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were not associated with the risk of coronary events. Dietary intake of trans fatty acids, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and saturated fatty acids from meat and unprocessed meat was modestly associated with a higher risk and, in contrast, intake of alpha-linolenic acid, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, and linoleic acid was modestly associated with a lower risk. Supplementation with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and increasing the consumption of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids in place of saturated fats reduced the risk of coronary events. Existing evidence, in its totality, provides a modest support in favor of current recommendations suggesting replacement of saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats.

Link to Full Text