Eur J Med Res, 2023, doi: 10.1186/s40001-023-01203-6

A comprehensive review of the health benefits of flaxseed oil in relation to its chemical composition and comparison with other omega-3-rich oils

Al-Madhagy S Ashmawy NS Mamdouh A et al

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L) is an ancient perennial plant species regarded as a multipurpose plant owing to its richness in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) including α-linolenic acid (ALA). The extensive biochemical analysis of flaxseed resulted in the identification of its bioactive, i.e., lignans with potential application in the improvement of human health. Flaxseed oil, fibers, and lignans exert potential health benefits including reduction of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, and autoimmune and neurological disorders that have led to the diversification of flaxseed plant applications. This comprehensive review focuses on flaxseed oil as the major product of flaxseed with emphasis on the interrelationship between its chemical composition and biological effects. Effects reviewed include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiulcer, anti-osteoporotic, cardioprotective, metabolic, and neuroprotective. This study provides an overview of flaxseed oil effects with the reported action mechanisms related to its phytochemical composition and in comparison, to other PUFA-rich oils. This study presents the most updated and comprehensive review summarizing flaxseed oil’s health benefits for the treatment of various diseases.

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