Foods., 2023, Mar 3;12(5):1088. doi: 10.3390/foods12051088.

Effect of Ferulic Acid and Its Derivatives on Cold-Pressed Flaxseed Oil Oxidative Stability and Bioactive Compounds Retention during Oxidation. F

Mikołajczak N Pilarski W Gęsiński K Tańska M.


Ferulic acid (FA) is a naturally occurring phenolic antioxidant that is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its low toxicity. Its derivatives also find numerous industrial applications and may have even higher biological activity than ferulic acid. In this study, the effect of the addition of FA and its derivatives-including vanillic acid (VA), dihydroferulic acid (DHFA), and 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG)-on the oxidative stability of cold-pressed flaxseed oil and the degradation of bioactive compounds during oxidation was investigated. The results showed that FA and its derivatives affected the oxidative stability of flaxseed oil, but their antioxidant activity depended on the concentration (25-200 mg/100 g oil) and temperature of treatment (60-110 °C). Based on Rancimat test results, flaxseed oil oxidative stability predicted at 20 °C increased linearly with ferulic acid concentration, while its derivatives effectively prolonged the induction time at lower concentrations (50-100 mg/100 g oil). The addition of phenolic antioxidants (80 mg/100 g) generally showed a protective effect against polyunsaturated fatty acids (DHFA and 4-VG), sterols (4-VG), tocols (DHFA), squalene, and carotenoids (FA). The exception was VA, which increased the degradation of most bioactive compounds. It is believed that adding properly composed mixtures of FA and its derivatives (DHFA and 4-VG) can extend the shelf life of flaxseed oil and provide nutritional benefits.

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